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Food is the basic source of energy that is promotes life on earth. A life devoid of food is impossible for all living beings. Human race from ancient period onwards depend on nature for his food. Later he realized his capability in making food. He invented many methods for food consumption that include the cultivation of crops or agriculture and cooking. He found that agriculture is the best source in the creation of food. Gradually many civilization emerged agriculture being the foundation. Man began to cultivate various types of crops that provided variety of foods. Agriculture became a main occupation in several communities all over the world. Through various form of agriculture different food cultures were evolved. Many foods became staple form of food of different societies based on the food crop that was largely cultivated. Many of whole grains including rice and wheat are the most popularly used staple food forms. During ancient time apart from the agricultural production natural foods also treated as a major portion of diet. With the modernization agriculture production faced considerable decrease. The result of industrialization resulted in rise of several new products. Land became a scarce factor as it was utilized mainly for the erecting buildings and factories and as a result the agricultural land shrunk to a nominal level. With the globalization in the modern world the agriculture became the least wanted occupation in the world. Small scale agriculture or family farming was replaced by organizations or large scale agriculture where food was produced from large farms for business purpose. Though there are large scale production of food the proper distribution in the quantity of various food items are not sufficient in proportion to the population in many parts of the world. The importance of small scale farming of food crops is more relevant today as there is no sufficient distribution.
The small farming aided with new technological equipments improves the new methods of farming by the farmer and provide food security and sustainability. Small farming has impact in the countries that have great biodiversity where the farming can be attuned to the regions and climate. The small farming is the best alternative at disaster stricken places where daily intake of food is a scarcity. It is also a long term investment in food security as it also promotes the agro biodiversity. It also promotes ecological balance that is quite environment friendly, particularly promoting cool climatic conditions and there by preserve the agricultural land and agricultural yield as a safe food security for the society.
Though the small farming has different advantages in the perspective of global food security and sustainability there are several challenges that are faced by the farmers. The old methods of farming need to be altered in accordance with the new modern world requirements. In olden times animals were used for toiling the land but today it has been replaced by many new types of equipment. The suitability of land for cultivation is the basic requirement to be fulfilled. The scarcity of land for agriculture is one of the challenges faced by the farmers in small farming. The availability of tools that are used for farming is equally important as the suitability of land for agriculture. The agricultural grant or fund provided by the government has the possibility to be misused as it will reach in the wrong hands. The quality seeds, fertilizers and the suitable land help the farmer to get good yield even though there proper weather plays an important role in cultivation. If the components of small farming including high quality yielding seeds, fertilizers, suitable land and any technological equipment that improves the farming makes considerable change providing food security against food shortage. Proper financial assistance through government, organizations promoting small farming and insurance coverage from natural disasters for the farmers is the sure elements that promote small farming. The small farming also promotes organic foods that have high nutritional values instead of the other food containing high pesticide level. The nutritious variety of small farm crops helps to improve the health condition and to control malnutrition.
Today many countries have recognized the small farming system as an important aspect in world’s food security and conservation of nature.